Communication networks of today are going through a rapid evolution. Different kinds of networks with different characteristics are emerging and they are integrating in heterogeneous networks. For these reasons, there are many interconnection problems which may occur at different levels in the hardware and software design of communicating entities and communication networks. These kinds of networks need to manage an increasing usage demand, provide support for a significant number of services, guarantee their QoS, and optimize the utilization of network resources. Therefore, architectures and algorithms in these networks become very complex and it seems imperative to focus on new models and methods as well as mechanisms, which can enable the network to perform adaptive behaviors.
The success of all-IP networking and wireless technology has changed the ways of living for the people around the world. The progress of electronic integration and wireless communications is going to pave the way to offer people the access to the wireless networks on the fly, based on which all electronic devices will be able to exchange the information with each other whenever necessary. Also, ubiquitous computing is an emerging field of research for computing paradigms in the 21st century. This emergence is the natural result of research and technological advances mainly in wireless communications, mobile computing and agent technologies. Supported by recent technological advances in low power wireless communications along with silicon integration of various functionalities such as sensing, communications, intelligence and actuations, ad-hoc networks and sensor networks are emerging as a critically important disruptive computer class based on a new platform, networking structure and interface that enable novel, low cost, high volume applications such as nuclear, biological and chemical attack detection and protection, home automation, battlefield surveillance and environmental monitoring.